Much like the dreaded cockroach which has adapted over the evolutionary period of the Earth's existence to live in environments, walk through modern bug sprays, and come out laughing at you, why can't there be other organisms, parasites, unknowns that have been hidden beneath the crust of our world, that are now being released into our environment....An environment that isn't wholly ready for it.
Corexit, while portrayed to the public as an "oil dispersant," is listed on the chemical platforms as an insecticide used to rid fields of needed crops from parasitism, to feed our nation.
CAN YOU SAY COVER-UP? Why don't they just tell us the truth? Probably because they think that we all live in ignorant bliss. Well, guess what... This American doesn't.
Morgellons, The Seven Sisters/Big Oil, Springtails/Collembola, and perhaps even cancer are interrelated somehow. Like pieces to a puzzle, they need to be put together in order to see the big picture.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaL. petroleum, from Greek: Πέτρα (rock) + Latin: oleum (oil)) or crude oil is a naturally occurring flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. A fossil fuel, it is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and undergo intense heat and pressure.
Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling. This comes after the studies of structural geology (at the reservoir scale), sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterization (mainly in terms of porosity and permeable structures). It is refined and separated, most easily by boiling point, into a large number of consumer products, from petrol (or gasoline) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals. Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, and it is estimated that the world consumes about 88 million barrels each day.
The use of fossil fuels such as petroleum can have a negative impact on Earth's biosphere, releasing pollutants and greenhouse gases into the air and damaging ecosystems through events such as oil spills. Concern over the depletion of the earth's finite reserves of oil, and the effect this would have on a society dependent on it, is a field known as peak oil.
EtymologyThe word "petroleum" comes from Greek: πέτρα (petra) for rock and Greek: ἔλαιον (elaion) for oil. The term was found (in the spelling "petraoleum") in 10th-century Old English sources. It was used in the treatise De Natura Fossilium, published in 1546 by the German mineralogist Georg Bauer, also known as Georgius Agricola. In the 19th century, the term "petroleum" was frequently used to refer to mineral oils produced by distillation from mined organic solids such as cannel coal (and later oil shale), and refined oils produced from them; in the United Kingdom, storage (and later transport) of these oils were regulated by a series of Petroleum Acts, from the Petroleum Act 1862 onwards.
CompositionIn its strictest sense, petroleum includes only crude oil, but in common usage it includes all liquid, gaseous, and solid hydrocarbons. Under surface pressure and temperature conditions, lighter hydrocarbons methane, ethane, propane and butane occur as gases, while pentane and heavier ones are in the form of liquids or solids. However, in an underground oil reservoir the proportions of gas, liquid, and solid depend on subsurface conditions and on the phase diagram of the petroleum mixture.
An oil well produces predominantly crude oil, with some natural gas dissolved in it. Because the pressure is lower at the surface than underground, some of the gas will come out of solution and be recovered (or burned) as associated gas or solution gas. A gas well produces predominantly natural gas. However, because the underground temperature and pressure are higher than at the surface, the gas may contain heavier hydrocarbons such as pentane, hexane, and heptane in the gaseous state. At surface conditions these will condense out of the gas to form natural gas condensate, often shortened to condensate. Condensate resembles petrol in appearance and is similar in composition to some volatile light crude oils.
The proportion of light hydrocarbons in the petroleum mixture varies greatly among different oil fields, ranging from as much as 97 percent by weight in the lighter oils to as little as 50 percent in the heavier oils and bitumens.
The hydrocarbons in crude oil are mostly alkanes, cycloalkanes and various aromatic hydrocarbons while the other organic compounds contain nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, and trace amounts of metals such as iron, nickel, copper and vanadium. The exact molecular composition varies widely from formation to formation but the proportion of chemical elements vary over fairly narrow limits as follows:
|Carbon||83 to 87%|
|Hydrogen||10 to 14%|
|Nitrogen||0.1 to 2%|
|Oxygen||0.05 to 1.5%|
|Sulfur||0.05 to 6.0%|
|Paraffins||30%||15 to 60%|
|Naphthenes||49%||30 to 60%|
|Aromatics||15%||3 to 30%|
Petroleum is used mostly, by volume, for producing fuel oil and petrol, both important "primary energy" sources. 84 per cent by volume of the hydrocarbons present in petroleum is converted into energy-rich fuels (petroleum-based fuels), including petrol, diesel, jet, heating, and other fuel oils, and liquefied petroleum gas. The lighter grades of crude oil produce the best yields of these products, but as the world's reserves of light and medium oil are depleted, oil refineries are increasingly having to process heavy oil and bitumen, and use more complex and expensive methods to produce the products required. Because heavier crude oils have too much carbon and not enough hydrogen, these processes generally involve removing carbon from or adding hydrogen to the molecules, and using fluid catalytic cracking to convert the longer, more complex molecules in the oil to the shorter, simpler ones in the fuels.
Due to its high energy density, easy transportability and relative abundance, oil has become the world's most important source of energy since the mid-1950s. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics; the 16 per cent not used for energy production is converted into these other materials. Petroleum is found in porous rock formations in the upper strata of some areas of the Earth's crust. There is also petroleum in oil sands (tar sands). Known oil reserves are typically estimated at around 190 km3 (1.2 trillion (short scale) barrels) without oil sands, or 595 km3 (3.74 trillion barrels) with oil sands. Consumption is currently around 84 million barrels (13.4×106 m3) per day, or 4.9 km3 per year. Which in turn yields a remaining oil supply of only about 120 years, if current demand remain static.
Chemistryhydrocarbons; the most commonly found molecules are alkanes (linear or branched), cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, or more complicated chemicals like asphaltenes. Each petroleum variety has a unique mix of molecules, which define its physical and chemical properties, like color and viscosity.
The alkanes, also known as paraffins, are saturated hydrocarbons with straight or branched chains which contain only carbon and hydrogen and have the general formula CnH2n+2. They generally have from 5 to 40 carbon atoms per molecule, although trace amounts of shorter or longer molecules may be present in the mixture.
The alkanes from pentane (C5H12) to octane (C8H18) are refined into petrol, the ones from nonane (C9H20) to hexadecane (C16H34) into diesel fuel, kerosene and jet fuel. Alkanes with more than 16 carbon atoms can be refined into fuel oil and lubricating oil. At the heavier end of the range, paraffin wax is an alkane with approximately 25 carbon atoms, while asphalt has 35 and up, although these are usually cracked by modern refineries into more valuable products. The shortest molecules, those with four or fewer carbon atoms, are in a gaseous state at room temperature. They are the petroleum gases. Depending on demand and the cost of recovery, these gases are either flared off, sold as liquified petroleum gas under pressure, or used to power the refinery's own burners. During the winter, butane (C4H10), is blended into the petrol pool at high rates, because its high vapor pressure assists with cold starts. Liquified under pressure slightly above atmospheric, it is best known for powering cigarette lighters, but it is also a main fuel source for many developing countries. Propane can be liquified under modest pressure, and is consumed for just about every application relying on petroleum for energy, from cooking to heating to transportation.
The cycloalkanes, also known as naphthenes, are saturated hydrocarbons which have one or more carbon rings to which hydrogen atoms are attached according to the formula CnH2n. Cycloalkanes have similar properties to alkanes but have higher boiling points.
The aromatic hydrocarbons are unsaturated hydrocarbons which have one or more planar six-carbon rings called benzene rings, to which hydrogen atoms are attached with the formula CnHn. They tend to burn with a sooty flame, and many have a sweet aroma. Some are carcinogenic.
These different molecules are separated by fractional distillation at an oil refinery to produce petrol, jet fuel, kerosene, and other hydrocarbons. For example, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane), widely used in petrol, has a chemical formula of C8H18 and it reacts with oxygen exothermically:
- 2 C8H18(l) + 25 O2(g) → 16 CO2(g) + 18 H2O(g) (ΔH = −10.86 MJ/mol of octane)
Incomplete combustion of petroleum or petrol results in production of toxic byproducts. Too little oxygen results in carbon monoxide. Due to the high temperatures and high pressures involved, exhaust gases from petrol combustion in car engines usually include nitrogen oxides which are responsible for creation of photochemical smog.
Empirical equations for thermal properties
Heat of combustionAt a constant volume the heat of combustion of a petroleum product can be approximated as follows:
Thermal conductivityThe thermal conductivity of petroleum based liquids can be modeled as follows:
Specific heatThe specific heat of a petroleum oils can be modeled as follows:
In units of kcal/(kg·°C), the formula is:
Latent heat of vaporizationThe latent heat of vaporization can be modeled under atmospheric conditions as follows:
In units of kcal/kg, the formula is:
Formationfossil fuel derived from ancient fossilized organic materials, such as zooplankton and algae. Vast quantities of these remains settled to sea or lake bottoms, mixing with sediments and being buried under anoxic conditions. As further layers settled to the sea or lake bed, intense heat and pressure built up in the lower regions. This process caused the organic matter to change, first into a waxy material known as kerogen, which is found in various oil shales around the world, and then with more heat into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons via a process known as catagenesis. Formation of petroleum occurs from hydrocarbon pyrolysis in a variety of mainly endothermic reactions at high temperature and/or pressure.
There were certain warm nutrient-rich environments such as the Gulf of Mexico and the ancient Tethys Sea where the large amounts of organic material falling to the ocean floor exceeded the rate at which it could decompose. This resulted in large masses of organic material being buried under subsequent deposits such as shale formed from mud. This massive organic deposit later became heated and transformed under pressure into oil.
Geologists often refer to the temperature range in which oil forms as an "oil window"—below the minimum temperature oil remains trapped in the form of kerogen, and above the maximum temperature the oil is converted to natural gas through the process of thermal cracking. Sometimes, oil formed at extreme depths may migrate and become trapped at a much shallower level. The Athabasca Oil Sands are one example of this.
Crude oil reservoirssource rock rich in hydrocarbon material buried deep enough for subterranean heat to cook it into oil; a porous and permeable reservoir rock for it to accumulate in; and a cap rock (seal) or other mechanism that prevents it from escaping to the surface. Within these reservoirs, fluids will typically organize themselves like a three-layer cake with a layer of water below the oil layer and a layer of gas above it, although the different layers vary in size between reservoirs. Because most hydrocarbons are less dense than rock or water, they often migrate upward through adjacent rock layers until either reaching the surface or becoming trapped within porous rocks (known as reservoirs) by impermeable rocks above. However, the process is influenced by underground water flows, causing oil to migrate hundreds of kilometres horizontally or even short distances downward before becoming trapped in a reservoir. When hydrocarbons are concentrated in a trap, an oil field forms, from which the liquid can be extracted by drilling and pumping.
The reactions that produce oil and natural gas are often modeled as first order breakdown reactions, where hydrocarbons are broken down to oil and natural gas by a set of parallel reactions, and oil eventually breaks down to natural gas by another set of reactions. The latter set is regularly used in petrochemical plants and oil refineries.
Wells are drilled into oil reservoirs to extract the crude oil. "Natural lift" production methods that rely on the natural reservoir pressure to force the oil to the surface are usually sufficient for a while after reservoirs are first tapped. In some reservoirs, such as in the Middle East, the natural pressure is sufficient over a long time. The natural pressure in most reservoirs, however, eventually dissipates. Then the oil must be extracted using "artificial lift" means. Over time, these "primary" methods become less effective and "secondary" production methods may be used. A common secondary method is "waterflood" or injection of water into the reservoir to increase pressure and force the oil to the drilled shaft or "wellbore." Eventually "tertiary" or "enhanced" oil recovery methods may be used to increase the oil's flow characteristics by injecting steam, carbon dioxide and other gases or chemicals into the reservoir. In the United States, primary production methods account for less than 40 per cent of the oil produced on a daily basis, secondary methods account for about half, and tertiary recovery the remaining 10 per cent. Extracting oil (or "bitumen") from oil/tar sand and oil shale deposits requires mining the sand or shale and heating it in a vessel or retort, or using "in-situ" methods of injecting heated liquids into the deposit and then pumping out the oil-saturated liquid.
Unconventional oil reservoirsOil-eating bacteria biodegrade oil that has escaped to the surface. Oil sands are reservoirs of partially biodegraded oil still in the process of escaping and being biodegraded, but they contain so much migrating oil that, although most of it has escaped, vast amounts are still present—more than can be found in conventional oil reservoirs. The lighter fractions of the crude oil are destroyed first, resulting in reservoirs containing an extremely heavy form of crude oil, called crude bitumen in Canada, or extra-heavy crude oil in Venezuela. These two countries have the world's largest deposits of oil sands.
On the other hand, oil shales are source rocks that have not been exposed to heat or pressure long enough to convert their trapped hydrocarbons into crude oil. Technically speaking, oil shales are not always shales and do not contain oil, but are fined-grain sedimentary rocks containing an insoluble organic solid called kerogen. The kerogen in the rock can be converted into crude oil using heat and pressure to simulate natural processes. The method has been known for centuries and was patented in 1694 under British Crown Patent No. 330 covering, "A way to extract and make great quantities of pitch, tar, and oil out of a sort of stone." Although oil shales are found in many countries, the United States has the world's largest deposits.
Classificationpetroleum industry generally classifies crude oil by the geographic location it is produced in (e.g. West Texas Intermediate, Brent, or Oman), its API gravity (an oil industry measure of density), and its sulfur content. Crude oil may be considered light if it has low density or heavy if it has high density; and it may be referred to as sweet if it contains relatively little sulfur or sour if it contains substantial amounts of sulfur.
The geographic location is important because it affects transportation costs to the refinery. Light crude oil is more desirable than heavy oil since it produces a higher yield of petrol, while sweet oil commands a higher price than sour oil because it has fewer environmental problems and requires less refining to meet sulfur standards imposed on fuels in consuming countries. Each crude oil has unique molecular characteristics which are understood by the use of crude oil assay analysis in petroleum laboratories.
Barrels from an area in which the crude oil's molecular characteristics have been determined and the oil has been classified are used as pricing references throughout the world. Some of the common reference crudes are:
- West Texas Intermediate (WTI), a very high-quality, sweet, light oil delivered at Cushing, Oklahoma for North American oil
- Brent Blend, comprising 15 oils from fields in the Brent and Ninian systems in the East Shetland Basin of the North Sea. The oil is landed at Sullom Voe terminal in Shetland. Oil production from Europe, Africa and Middle Eastern oil flowing West tends to be priced off this oil, which forms a benchmark
- Dubai-Oman, used as benchmark for Middle East sour crude oil flowing to the Asia-Pacific region
- Tapis (from Malaysia, used as a reference for light Far East oil)
- Minas (from Indonesia, used as a reference for heavy Far East oil)
- The OPEC Reference Basket, a weighted average of oil blends from various OPEC (The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) countries
- Midway Sunset Heavy, by which heavy oil in California is priced
Petroleum industryexploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often with oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and petrol. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics. The industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream and downstream. Midstream operations are usually included in the downstream category.
Petroleum is vital to many industries, and is of importance to the maintenance of industrialized civilization itself, and thus is critical concern to many nations. Oil accounts for a large percentage of the world's energy consumption, ranging from a low of 32 per cent for Europe and Asia, up to a high of 53 per cent for the Middle East, South and Central America (44%), Africa (41%), and North America (40%). The world at large consumes 30 billion barrels (4.8 km³) of oil per year, and the top oil consumers largely consist of developed nations. In fact, 24 per cent of the oil consumed in 2004 went to the United States alone, though by 2007 this had dropped to 21 per cent of world oil consumed.
In the US, in the states of Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Oregon and Washington, the Western States Petroleum Association (WSPA) represents companies responsible for producing, distributing, refining, transporting and marketing petroleum. This non-profit trade association was founded in 1907, and is the oldest petroleum trade association in the United States.
Historyinternal combustion engine, the rise in commercial aviation and the increasing use of plastic and pesticides.
More than 4000 years ago, according to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, asphalt was used in the construction of the walls and towers of Babylon; there were oil pits near Ardericca (near Babylon), and a pitch spring on Zacynthus. Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus, one of the tributaries of the Euphrates. Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society. By 347 AD, oil was produced from bamboo-drilled wells in China.
In the 1840s, the process to distill kerosene from petroleum was invented by James Young in Scotland and the first refinery was built by Ignacy Łukasiewicz, providing a cheaper alternative to whale oil. The demand for the petroleum as a fuel for lighting in North America and around the world quickly grew. The question of what constituted the first commercial oil well is a difficult one to answer. Edwin Drake's 1859 well near Titusville, Pennsylvania, is popularly considered the first modern well. Drake's well is probably singled out because it was drilled, not dug; because it used a steam engine; because there was a company associated with it; and because it touched off a major boom. However, there was considerable activity before Drake in various parts of the world in the mid-19th century. A group directed by Major Alexeyev of the Bakinskii Corps of Mining Engineers hand-drilled a well in the Baku region in 1848. There were engine-drilled wells in West Virginia in the same year as Drake's well. An early commercial well was hand dug in Poland in 1853, and another in nearby Romania in 1857. At around the same time the world's first, small, oil refinery was opened at Jasło in Poland, with a larger one opened at Ploiești in Romania shortly after. Romania is the first country in the world to have had its annual crude oil output officially recorded in international statistics: 275 tonnes for 1857. The first commercial oil well in Canada became operational in 1858 at Oil Springs, Ontario (then Canada West). Businessman James Miller Williams dug several wells between 1855 and 1858 before discovering a rich reserve of oil four metres below ground. Williams extracted 1.5 million litres of crude oil by 1860, refining much of it into kerosene lamp oil. William's well became commercially viable a year before Drake's Pennsylvania operation and could be argued to be the first commercial oil well in North America. The discovery at Oil Springs touched off an oil boom which brought hundreds of speculators and workers to the area. Advances in drilling continued into 1862 when local driller Shaw reached a depth of 62 metres using the spring-pole drilling method. On January 16, 1862, after an explosion of natural gas Canada's first oil gusher came into production, shooting into the air at a recorded rate of 3,000 barrels per day. By the end of the 19th century the Russian Empire, particularly the Branobel company in Azerbaijan, had taken the lead in production.
Access to oil was and still is a major factor in several military conflicts of the twentieth century, including World War II, during which oil facilities were a major strategic asset and were extensively bombed. Operation Barbarossa included the goal to capture the Baku oilfields, as it would provide much needed oil-supplies for the German military which was suffering from blockades. Oil exploration in North America during the early 20th century later led to the U.S. becoming the leading producer by mid-century. As petroleum production in the U.S. peaked during the 1960s, however, the United States was surpassed by Saudi Arabia and Russia.
Today, about 90 per cent of vehicular fuel needs are met by oil. Petroleum also makes up 40 per cent of total energy consumption in the United States, but is responsible for only 1 per cent of electricity generation. Petroleum's worth as a portable, dense energy source powering the vast majority of vehicles and as the base of many industrial chemicals makes it one of the world's most important commodities. Viability of the oil commodity is controlled by several key parameters, number of vehicles in the world competing for fuel, quantity of oil exported to the world market (Export Land Model), Net Energy Gain (economically useful energy provided minus energy consumed), political stability of oil exporting nations and ability to defend oil supply lines.
The top three oil producing countries are Saudi Arabia, Russia, and the United States. About 80 per cent of the world's readily accessible reserves are located in the Middle East, with 62.5 per cent coming from the Arab 5: Saudi Arabia, UAE, Iraq, Qatar and Kuwait. A large portion of the world's total oil exists as unconventional sources, such as bitumen in Canada and oil shale in Venezuela. While significant volumes of oil are extracted from oil sands, particularly in Canada, logistical and technical hurdles remain, as oil extraction requires large amounts of heat and water, making its net energy content quite low relative to conventional crude oil. Thus, Canada's oil sands are not expected to provide more than a few million barrels per day in the foreseeable future.
Conventional crude oil production, those having Net Energy Gain above 10 stopped growing in 2005 at about 74 million barrels per day (11,800,000 m3/d). The International Energy Agency's (IEA) 2010 World Energy Outlook estimated that conventional crude oil production has peaked and is depleting at 6.8 per cent per year. US Joint Forces Command's Joint Operating Environment 2010 issued this warning to all US military commands "By 2012, surplus oil production capacity could entirely disappear, and as early as 2015, the shortfall in output could reach nearly 10 million barrels per day."
ShippingIn the 1950s, shipping costs made up 33 per cent of the price of oil transported from the Persian Gulf to USA, but due to the development of supertankers in the 1970s, the cost of shipping dropped to only 5 per cent of the price of Persian oil in USA. Due to the increase of the value of the crude oil during the last 30 years, the share of the shipping cost on the final cost of the delivered commodity was less than 3% in 2010. For example, in 2010 the shipping cost from the Persian Gulf to the USA was in the range of 20 $/t and the cost of the delivered crude oil around 800 $/t.
PriceAfter the collapse of the OPEC-administered pricing system in 1985, and a short lived experiment with netback pricing, oil-exporting countries adopted a market-linked pricing mechanism. First adopted by PEMEX in 1986, market-linked pricing was widely accepted, and by 1988 became and still is the main method for pricing crude oil in international trade. The current reference, or pricing markers, are Brent, WTI, and Dubai/Oman.
UsesThe chemical structure of petroleum is heterogeneous, composed of hydrocarbon chains of different lengths. Because of this, petroleum may be taken to oil refineries and the hydrocarbon chemicals separated by distillation and treated by other chemical processes, to be used for a variety of purposes. See Petroleum products.
Fuelsdistillation fractions of petroleum are fuels. Fuels include (by increasing boiling temperature range):
|Fraction||Boiling Range oC|
|Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)||−40|
|Butane||−12 to −1|
|Petrol||−1 to 110|
|Jet fuel||150 to 205|
|Kerosene||205 to 260|
|Fuel oil||205 to 290|
|Diesel fuel||260 to 315|
Other derivativesCertain types of resultant hydrocarbons may be mixed with other non-hydrocarbons, to create other end products:
- Alkenes (olefins) which can be manufactured into plastics or other compounds
- Lubricants (produces light machine oils, motor oils, and greases, adding viscosity stabilizers as required).
- Wax, used in the packaging of frozen foods, among others.
- Sulfur or Sulfuric acid. These are a useful industrial materials. Sulfuric acid is usually prepared as the acid precursor oleum, a byproduct of sulfur removal from fuels.
- Bulk tar.
- Petroleum coke, used in speciality carbon products or as solid fuel.
- Paraffin wax
- Aromatic petrochemicals to be used as precursors in other chemical production.
AgricultureSince the 1940s, agricultural productivity has increased dramatically, due largely to the increased use of energy-intensive mechanization, fertilizers and pesticides. Nearly all pesticides and many fertilizers are made from oil.
Petroleum by country
ConsumptionAccording to the US Energy Information Administration estimate for 2011 the world consumes 87.421 million barrels of oil each day.
barrels (1000 bbl) per day and in thousand cubic metres (1000 m3) per day:
|Consuming Nation 2011||(1000 bbl/
|United States 1||18,835.5||2,994.6||314||21.8||3.47||0.51|
|Saudi Arabia (OPEC)||2,817.5||447.9||27||40||6.4||3.64|
|South Korea 2||2,230.2||354.6||48||16.8||2.67||0.02|
|United Kingdom 1||1,607.9||255.6||61||9.5||1.51||0.93|
1 peak production of oil already passed in this state
2 This country is not a major oil producer
|#||Producing Nation||103bbl/d (2006)||103bbl/d (2007)||103bbl/d (2008)||103bbl/d (2009)||Present Share|
|1||Saudi Arabia (OPEC)||10,665||10,234||10,782||9,760||11.8%|
|3||United States 1||8,331||8,481||8,514||9,141||11.1%|
|8||United Arab Emirates (OPEC)||2,945||2,948||3,046||2,795||3.4%|
|10||Venezuela (OPEC) 1||2,803||2,667||2,643||2,471||3.0%|
|13||Iraq (OPEC) 3||2,008||2,094||2,385||2,400||2.9%|
1 Peak production of conventional oil already passed in this state
2 Although Canadian conventional oil production is declining, total oil production is increasing as oil sands production grows. If oil sands are included, it has the world's second largest oil reserves after Saudi Arabia.
3 Though still a member, Iraq has not been included in production figures since 1998
Exportbbl/d and thousand m³/d:
|#||Exporting Nation||103bbl/d (2011)||103m3/d (2011)||103bbl/d (2009)||103m3/d (2009)||103bbl/d (2006)||103m3/d (2006)|
|1||Saudi Arabia (OPEC)||8,336||1,325||7,322||1,164||8,651||1,376|
|4||United Arab Emirates (OPEC)||2,524||401||2,303||366||2,515||400|
|10||Venezuela (OPEC) 1||1,715||273||1,748||278||2,203||350|
|11||Algeria (OPEC) 1||1,568||249||1,767||281||1,847||297|
|15||Azerbaijan (OPEC) 1||836||133||912||145||532||85|
1 peak production already passed in this state
2 Canadian statistics are complicated by the fact it is both an importer and exporter of crude oil, and refines large amounts of oil for the U.S. market. It is the leading source of U.S. imports of oil and products, averaging 2,500,000 bbl/d (400,000 m3/d) in August 2007. .
Total world production/consumption (as of 2005) is approximately 84 million barrels per day (13,400,000 m3/d).
Importbbl/d and thousand m³/d:
|#||Importing Nation||103bbl/day (2011)||103m3/day (2011)||103bbl/day (2009)||103m3/day (2009)||103bbl/day (2006)||103m3/day (2006)|
|1||United States 1||8,728||1,388||9,631||1,531||12,220||1,943|
|11||Republic of China (Taiwan)||1,009||160||944||150||942||150|
1 peak production of oil already passed in this state
2 Major oil producer whose production is still increasing
Import to the USA by country 2010
Non-producing consumersCountries whose oil production is 10 per cent or less of their consumption.
Environmental effectsseismic exploration, drilling, extraction, refining and combustion). Phenomena such as seeps and tar pits are examples of areas that petroleum affects without man's involvement. Regardless of source, petroleum's effects when released into the environment are similar.
Global warmingWhen burned, petroleum releases carbon dioxide; a greenhouse gas. Along with the burning of coal, petroleum combustion is the largest contributor to the increase in atmospheric CO2. Atmospheric CO2 has risen steadily since the industrial revolution to current levels of over 380ppmv, from the 180 – 300ppmv of the prior 800 thousand years, driving global warming. The unbridled use of petroleum could potentially cause a runaway greenhouse effect on Earth. So far, the Earth's temperature has been raised by almost an entire degree Celsius. This raise in temperature has reduced the Arctic ice cap to 1.1 million square miles smaller than ever recorded, a size merely twelve times that of Great Britain. Because of this melt, more oil reserves have been revealed. It is estimated by the International Energy Agency that about 13 per cent of the world's undiscovered oil resides in the Arctic.
ExtractionOil extraction is simply the removal of oil from the reservoir (oil pool). Oil is often recovered as a water-in-oil emulsion, and specialty chemicals called demulsifiers are used to separate the oil from water. Oil extraction is costly and sometimes environmentally damaging, although Dr. John Hunt of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution pointed out in a 1981 paper that over 70 per cent of the reserves in the world are associated with visible macroseepages, and many oil fields are found due to natural seeps. Offshore exploration and extraction of oil disturbs the surrounding marine environment.
Oil spillsspills from tanker ship accidents have damaged natural ecosystems in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico, the Galapagos Islands, France and many other places.
The quantity of oil spilled during accidents has ranged from a few hundred tons to several hundred thousand tons (e.g., Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Atlantic Empress, Amoco Cadiz). Smaller spills have already proven to have a great impact on ecosystems, such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill
Oil spills at sea are generally much more damaging than those on land, since they can spread for hundreds of nautical miles in a thin oil slick which can cover beaches with a thin coating of oil. This can kill sea birds, mammals, shellfish and other organisms it coats. Oil spills on land are more readily containable if a makeshift earth dam can be rapidly bulldozed around the spill site before most of the oil escapes, and land animals can avoid the oil more easily.
Control of oil spills is difficult, requires ad hoc methods, and often a large amount of manpower. The dropping of bombs and incendiary devices from aircraft on the Torrey Canyon wreck produced poor results; modern techniques would include pumping the oil from the wreck, like in the Prestige oil spill or the Erika oil spill.
Though crude oil is predominantly composed of various hydrocarbons, certain nitrogen heterocylic compounds, such as pyridine, picoline, and quinoline are reported as contaminants associated with crude oil, as well as facilities processing oil shale or coal, and have also been found at legacy wood treatment sites. These compounds have a very high water solubility, and thus tend to dissolve and move with water. Certain naturally occurring bacteria, such as Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, and Rhodococcus and have been shown to degrade these contaminants.
TarballsA tarball is a blob of crude oil (not to be confused with tar, which is typically derived from pine trees rather than petroleum) which has been weathered after floating in the ocean. Tarballs are an aquatic pollutant in most environments, although they can occur naturally, for example, in the Santa Barbara Channel of California. Their concentration and features have been used to assess the extent of oil spills. Their composition can be used to identify their sources of origin, and tarballs themselves may be dispersed over long distances by deep sea currents. They are slowly decomposed by bacteria, including Chromobacterium violaceum, Cladosporium resinae, Bacillus submarinus, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida marina and Saccharomyces estuari.
WhalesJames S. Robbins has argued that the advent of petroleum-refined kerosene saved some species of great whales from extinction by providing an inexpensive substitute for whale oil, thus eliminating the economic imperative for open-boat whaling.
Alternatives to petroleumIn the United States in 2007 about 70 per cent of petroleum was used for transportation (e.g. petrol, diesel, jet fuel), 24 per cent by industry (e.g. production of plastics), 5 per cent for residential and commercial uses, and 2 per cent for electricity production. Outside of the US, a higher proportion of petroleum tends to be used for electricity.
Alternatives to petroleum-based vehicle fuelsAlternative fuel vehicles refers to both:
- vehicles that use alternative fuels used in standard or modified internal combustion engines such as natural gas vehicles, neat ethanol vehicles, flexible-fuel vehicles, biodiesel-powered vehicles, and hydrogen vehicles.
- vehicles with advanced propulsion systems that reduce or substitute petroleum use such as battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.
Alternatives to using oil in industry
|This section requires expansion. (July 2008)|
Alternatives to burning petroleum for electricityIn oil producing countries with little refinery capacity, oil is sometimes burned to produce electricity. Renewable energy technologies such as solar power, wind power, micro hydro, biomass and biofuels might someday be used to replace some of these generators, but today the primary alternatives remain large scale hydroelectricity, nuclear and coal-fired generation.
Future of petroleum productionConsumption in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries has been abundantly pushed by automobile growth; the 1985–2003 oil glut even fueled the sales of low economy vehicles in OECD countries. In 2008, the economic crisis seems to have some impact on the sales of such vehicles; still, the 2008 oil consumption shows a small increase. The BRIC countries might also kick in, as China briefly was the first automobile market in December 2009. The immediate outlook still hints upwards. In the long term, uncertainties linger; the OPEC believes that the OECD countries will push low consumption policies at some point in the future; when that happens, it will definitely curb oil sales, and both OPEC and EIA kept lowering their 2020 consumption estimates during the past 5 years. Oil products are more and more in competition with alternative sources, mainly coal and natural gas, both cheaper sources.
Tupi, Guara and Tiber demand high investments and ever-increasing technological abilities. Subsalt reservoirs such as Tupi were unknown in the twentieth century, mainly because the industry was unable to probe them. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques (example: DaQing, China ) will continue to play a major role in increasing the world's recoverable oil.
Hubbert applied his theory to accurately predict the peak of U.S. oil production at a date between 1966 and 1970. This prediction was based on data available at the time of his publication in 1956. In the same paper, Hubbert predicts world peak oil in "half a century" after his publication, which would be 2006.
It is difficult to predict the oil peak in any given region, due to the lack of knowledge and/or transparency in accounting of global oil reserves. The scientist and researchers from Oxford University argue that official figures are inflated because OPEC members over-reported reserves in the 1980s when competing for global market share. Based on available production data, proponents have previously predicted the peak for the world to be in years 1989, 1995, or 1995–2000. Some of these predictions date from before the recession of the early 1980s, and the consequent reduction in global consumption, the effect of which was to delay the date of any peak by several years. Just as the 1971 U.S. peak in oil production was only clearly recognized after the fact, a peak in world production will be difficult to discern until production clearly drops off. The peak is also a moving target as it is now measured as "liquids", which includes synthetic fuels, instead of just conventional oil.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) says production of conventional crude oil peaked in 2006. Since virtually all economic sectors rely heavily on petroleum, peak oil could lead to a "partial or complete failure of markets" - or, simply an orderly transition to 100 per cent renewable energy, within as short as a decade.
|Wikinews has news related to:
- Crude oil assay
- Barrel of oil equivalent
- Gas oil ratio
- Gross domestic product per barrel
- List of countries by proven oil reserves
- List of oil fields
- List of petroleum companies
- Manure-derived synthetic crude oil
- Oil burden
- Petroleum geology
- Thermal depolymerization
- Total petroleum hydrocarbon
- Waste oil
- Tar Sands
- "Petroleum". Concise Oxford English Dictionary
- The Latin word petra is a loanword from Greek πέτρα.
- Guerriero V. et al. (2011). "Improved statistical multi-scale analysis of fractures in carbonate reservoir analogues". Tectonophysics (Elsevier) 504: 14–24. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2011.01.003.
- Guerriero V. et al. (2010). "Quantifying uncertainties in multi-scale studies of fractured reservoir analogues: Implemented statistical analysis of scan line data from carbonate rocks". Journal of Structural Geology (Elsevier) 32 (9): 1271–1278. doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2009.04.016.
- "Organic Hydrocarbons: Compounds made from carbon and hydrogen". Archived from the original on July 19, 2011.
- "Libyan tremors threaten to rattle the oil world". The Hindu (Chennai, India). March 1, 2011.
- Oxford English Dictionary online edition, entry "petroleum"
- Bauer (1546)
- Hyne (2001), pp. 1–4.
- Speight (1999), p. 215–216.
- Alboudwarej et al. (Summer 2006) (PDF). Highlighting Heavy Oil. Oilfield Review. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
- "Oil Sands – Glossary". Mines and Minerals Act. Government of Alberta. 2007. Archived from the original on November 1, 2007. Retrieved October 2, 2008.
- "Oil Sands in Canada and Venezuela". Infomine Inc.. 2008. Retrieved October 2, 2008.
- IEA Key World Energy Statistics[dead link]
- "Crude oil is made into different fuels". Eia.doe.gov. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "EIA reserves estimates". Eia.doe.gov. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "CERA report on total world oil". Cera.com. November 14, 2006. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "Heat of Combustion of Fuels". Webmo.net. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- Use of ozone depleting substances in laboratories. TemaNord 2003:516.
- Speight (2007), p. 25.
- United States Bureau of Standards, "Thermal Properties of Petroleum Products". Miscellaneous Publication No. 97, November 9, 1929.
- Treibs, A.E. (1936). "Chlorophyll- und Häminderivate in organischen Mineralstoffen". Angew. Chem. 49: 682–686. doi:10.1002/ange.19360493803.
- Kvenvolden, K. A. (2006). "Organic geochemistry – A retrospective of its first 70 years". Org. Geochem. 37: 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2005.09.001.
- Kvenvolden, Keith A. (2006). "Organic geochemistry – A retrospective of its first 70 years". Organic Geochemistry 37: 1. doi:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2005.09.001.
- Braun, Robert L.; Burnham, lan K. (June 1993). "Chemical Reaction Model for Oil and Gas Generation from Type I and Type II Kerogen". Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- Broad, William J. (August 2, 2010). "Tracing Oil Reserves to Their Tiny Origins". The New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
- Polar Prospects:A minerals treaty for Antarctica. United States, Office of Technology Assessment. September 1989. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-4289-2232-7.
- Lambertson, Giles (February 16, 2008). "Oil Shale: Ready to Unlock the Rock". Construction Equipment Guide. Retrieved May 21, 2008.
- "Chevron Crude Oil Marketing – North America Posted Pricing – California". Crudemarketing.chevron.com. May 1, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "Light Sweet Crude Oil". About the Exchange. New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX). 2006. Archived from the original on March 14, 2008. Retrieved April 21, 2008.
- "International Energy Annual 2004" (XLS). Energy Information Administration. July 14, 2006.
- "Yearbook 2008 – crude oil". Energy data.
- "About Us". Western States Petroleum Association. Archived from the original on June 16, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Petroleum". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- George E. Totten ASTM Timeline
- Maugeri (2006), p. 3
- Vassiliou, M. S. (2009). Historical Dictionary of the Petroleum Industry. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press (Rowman & Littlefield), 700pp
- Matveichuk, Alexander A. Intersection of Oil Parallels: Historical Essays. Moscow: Russian Oil and Gas Institute, 2004.
- McKain, David L., and Bernard L. Allen. Where It All Began: The Story of the People and Places Where the Oil Industry Began—West Virginia and South- eastern Ohio. Parkersburg, W.Va.: David L. McKain, 1994.
- The History Of Romanian Oil Industry
- PBS: World Events
- http://www.lclmg.org/lclmg/Museums/OilMuseumofCanada/BlackGold2/OilHeritage/OilSprings/tabid/208/Default.aspx Oil Museum of Canada, Black Gold: Canada's Oil Heritage, Oil Springs: Boom & Bust
- Turnbull Elford, Jean. Canada West's Last Frontier. Lambton County Historical Society, 1982, p. 110
- May, Gary. Hard Oiler! The Story of Early Canadians' Quest for Oil at Home and Abroad. Dundurn Press, 1998, p 43
- Ford, R. W. A History of the Chemical Industry in Lambton County, 1988, p 5
- Akiner(2004), p. 5
- Hanson Baldwin, 1959, "Oil Strategy in World War II", American Petroleum Institute Quarterly – Centennial Issue, pages 10–11. American Petroleum Institute.
- Baku: City that Oil Built Archived 11 February 2011 at WebCite
- "InfoPlease". InfoPlease. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "A liquid market: Thanks to LNG, spare gas can now be sold the world over". The Economist. 14 July 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Mabro (2006), p. 351.
- Speight (1999), p. 543.
- "World oil supplies are set to run out faster than expected, warn scientists". The Independent. June 14, 2007.
- U.S. Energy Information Administration. Excel file from this web page. Table Posted: March 1, 2010
- From DSW-Datareport 2008 ("Deutsche Stiftung Weltbevölkerung")
- One cubic metre of oil is equivalent to 6.28981077 barrels of oil
- "IBGE". IBGE. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "World Crude Oil Production" (PDF). Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- http://seeps.wr.usgs.gov/ Natural Oil and Gas Seeps in California
- Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature, on a geological and recent time scale. (June 2007). In UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library. Retrieved 19:14, February 19, 2011.
- Deep ice tells long climate story. Retrieved 19:14, February 19, 2011.
- Mitchell John F. B. (1989). "THE "GREENHOUSE" EFFECT AND CLIMATE CHANGE"". Reviews of Geophysics 27 (1): 115–139. Bibcode 1989RvGeo..27..115M. doi:10.1029/RG027i001p00115.
- McKibbin, Bill. Eaarth: Making a Life on a Tough New Planet. New York: Times, 2010. Print.
- "Arctic Sea Ice Reaches New Low, Shattering Record Set Just 3 Weeks Ago." NBCNews.com. NBCNews.com, 19 Sept. 2012. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. <http://worldnews.nbcnews.com>.
- Waste discharges during the offshore oil and gas activity by Stanislave Patin, tr. Elena Cascio
- Torrey Canyon bombing by the Navy and RAF
- "Pumping of the Erika cargo". Total.com. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- Sims, Gerald K.; O'Loughlin, Edward J.; Crawford, Ronald L. (1989). "Degradation of pyridines in the environment". Critical Reviews in Environmental Control (Taylor & Francis) 19 (4): 309–340. doi:10.1080/10643388909388372.
- Itah A. Y. and Essien J. P. (Oct 2005). "Growth Profile and Hydrocarbonoclastic Potential of Microorganisms Isolated from Tarballs in the Bight of Bonny, Nigeria". World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (Kluwer Academic) 21 (6–7): 1317–1322. doi:10.1007/s11274-004-6694-z.
- Frances D. Hostettler, Robert J. Rosenbauer, Thomas D. Lorenson, Jennifer Dougherty, Geochemical characterization of tarballs on beaches along the California coast. Part I-- Shallow seepage impacting the Santa Barbara Channel Islands, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa and San Miguel, Organic Geochemistry, Volume 35, Issue 6, June 2004, Pages 725–746, ISSN 0146-6380, doi:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2004.01.022. 
- Knap Anthony H, Burns Kathryn A, Dawson Rodger, Ehrhardt Manfred, and Palmork Karsten H (Dec 1984). "Dissolved/dispersed hydrocarbons, tarballs and the surface microlayer: Experiences from an IOC/UNEP Workshop in Bermuda". Marine Pollution Bulletin 17 (7): 313–319. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(86)90217-1.
- Zhendi Wang, Merv Fingas, Michael Landriault, Lise Sigouin, Bill Castle, David Hostetter, Dachung Zhang, Brad Spencer, "Identification and Linkage of Tarballs from the Coasts of Vancouver Island and Northern California Using GC/MS and Isotopic Techniques Journal of High Resolution Chromatography, Volume 21 Issue 7, Pages 383–395, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4168(19980701)21:7<383::AID-JHRC383>3.0.CO;2–3
- How Capitalism Saved the Whales by James S. Robbins, The Freeman, August, 1992.
- "U.S. Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector, 2007". Energy Information Administration
- needtitle UN Energy Program
- Bioprocessing Seattle Times (2003)
- Chris Hogg (February 10, 2009). "China's car industry overtakes US". BBC News.
- OPEC Secretariat (2008). "World Oil Outlook 2008".[dead link]
- Ni Weiling (October 16, 2006). "Daqing Oilfield rejuvenated by virtue of technology".
- Campbell CJ (2000-12). "Peak Oil Presentation at the Technical University of Clausthal".
- Hubbert, Marion King; Shell Development Company (1956). "Nuclear energy and the fossil fuels". Drilling and Production Practice (Washington, DC: American Petroleum Institute) 95.
- "New study raises doubts about Saudi oil reserves". Iags.org. March 31, 2004. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "Oil reserves 'exaggerated by one third'". Telegraph. March 22, 2010.
- Peak Oil Info and Strategies "The only uncertainty about peak oil is the time scale, which is difficult to predict accurately."
- "Peak Oil": The Eventual End of the Oil Age pg. 12
- "Is 'Peak Oil' Behind Us?". The New York Times. November 14, 2010
- "Has the World Already Passed "Peak Oil"? ". National Geographic News. November 9, 2010
- "Military Study Warns of a Potentially Drastic Oil Crisis". Spiegel Online. September 1, 2010.
- Zero Carbon Australia Stationary Energy Plan
- Akiner, Shirin; Aldis, Anne, ed. (2004). The Caspian: Politics, Energy and Security. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7007-0501-6.
- Bauer Georg, Bandy Mark Chance (tr.), Bandy Jean A.(tr.) (1546) (in (Latin)). De Natura Fossilium. translated 1955
- Hyne, Norman J. (2001). Nontechnical Guide to Petroleum Geology, Exploration, Drilling, and Production. PennWell Corporation. ISBN 0-87814-823-X.
- Mabro, Robert; Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (2006). Oil in the 21st century: issues, challenges and opportunities. Oxford Press. ISBN 0-19-920738-0, 9780199207381.
- Maugeri, Leonardo (2005). The Age of Oil: What They Don't Want You to Know About the World's Most Controversial Resource. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-59921-118-3.
- Speight, James G. (1999). The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum. Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0-8247-0217-4.
- Speight, James G; Ancheyta, Jorge, ed. (2007). Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils and Residua. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-7419-7.
- Vassiliou, Marius (2009). Historical Dictionary of the Petroleum Industry. Scarecrow Press (Rowman & Littlefield). ISBN 0-8108-5993-9.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Petroleum|
- Petroleum at the Open Directory Project
- Petroleum Online e-Learning resource from IHRDC
- In-depth: Brent and WTI crude oil. What makes price difference
- U.S. Energy Information Administration
- American Petroleum Institute – the trade association of the US oil industry.
- Oil survey – OECD International Energy Agency
- Oil and Gas Industry Learning Center – information on oil and gas processes
- U.S. National Library of Medicine: Hazardous Substances Databank – Crude Oil